Using Personalized Bach Flower Therapy for Diabetic Patients


Editor’s note: This is an edited, cursory translation of the original article written in Spanish. We believe this study verifies that emotional changes brought about by flower essence therapy influence the outcome of physical health. Read the Spanish language version here. To read a summary of the emotional changes of note in this study of personalized flower essence therapy, click here.


Summary of Emotional Changes Observed

Personality Test for the Bach Essences

Introduction to the Study


Study Approach

Strategy of the Study

Ethical Considerations

Statistical Analysis





About  Miriam Mahia Vilas

Using Personalized Bach Flower Therapy for Diabetic Patients with Dyslipidemia

1) Miriam Mahia Vilas
2) Arquímedes Diaz Batista
3) Ana Maria Quintela Pena
4) Luisa Estela Ramos Morales
5) José Hernández Carretero
6) Yunier Arpajón Peña
7) Yornaika Llano González


A favorable response for those who received flower essence therapy

The Bach flower system is a complementary system to conventional medicine, considered as a therapeutic option, aimed at restoring negative emotional states maintained, whose presence hinder a good quality of life. We conducted a prospective randomized against placebo group with 200 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus, to evaluate the effectiveness of personalized Bach flower therapy on glycemic control and lipid as a complementary therapy. Of these, 147 were female and 53 male, who gave their consent to participate and were randomly assigned to treatment A (flower essence) or B (placebo) by sublingual administration of 4 drops 4 times a day for a period of 8 weeks. Treatment response was considered positive when there was decrease in glycemic and lipid levels. Both groups were comparable in age, sex, type of diabetes and pathological levels of glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. The percentage of favorable response was significantly higher after treatment compared to treatment B. Treatment with personalized Bach flower therapy applied with the conventional treatment for metabolic control of diabetes and lipid levels for 8 weeks was associated with decreased levels of pathological blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. The favorable response obtained in the treatment A relative to B was seen as a beneficial effect. Treatment was well tolerated and no adverse reactions were referred for treatment.

Keywords: Bach Flower Remedies, diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetics, personalized medicine, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides.


Bach flower therapy supports emotional conditions associated with diabetes

The Bach flower system is a complementary system to conventional medicine, considered as a therapeutic option (1) and is aimed at the restoration of maintained negative emotional states, whose presence hinder a good quality of life and ultimately cause the onset of disease . Dr Bach found in his studies that the same treatment does not always cure the same disease and concluded that an individual's personality played a role in the treatment of physical illness (2), hence the importance of individualization of therapy. In recent years, great attention has been paid to individual biological variability, the recognized response to the vast majority of drugs. This is due to pharmacological processes that take place in each organism to trigger a response. (3-4)

Bach flower therapy has been studied in different conditions related to negative emotional states, patients who were smokers, hypertensive and diabetic (5-7), among others. Beneficial results therefore suggested that treatment with flower essence therapy may be useful as an alternative or complementary therapies.

A study conducted at the National Institute of Angiology and Vascular Surgery (INACV) found a 50% favorable response in studies of cellular immunity after personalized Bach flower treatment in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus / DM (unpublished results).

Moreover, DM is a chronic noncommunicable disease encompassing metabolic disorders caused by a deficiency of insulin(8), which grows at an alarming rate worldwide, affecting the functional and emotional state of peoples’ suffering, subtracting years off life quality. (9) It is now a major health problem, and ranks as the fourth cause of death worldwide (8, 10) because it generates profound impacts and related complications in the short term (hypoglycemia) and long term (cardiovascular disease, neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy). (11).

Factors such as hyperglycemia, obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and smoking, increase the risk of severe clinical complications in diabetic patients (8 ,12-14), which in most cases require amputation of a major extremity(15-16).

The decline in the quality of life of these patients, disability, and increased morbidity and mortality (17-19), confirms the need to seek new alternative therapies that reduce its complications (20) factors causing them, and help improve their quality of life.

This study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of personalized Bach flower therapy on glycemic and lipid control in type 2 diabetic patients as a complementary therapy.


Hypothesizing that flower essence treatment would influence pathological levels associated with diabetes and help control the disease

Included in this study were 200 subjects with type 2 diabetes served by the outpatient service at INACV. The number of patients treated was calculated (N = 100 per study group). (21) This was based on the hypothesis that at least 40% of the patients decreased their pathological levels of glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, with the association and administration of flower essence treatment over conventional drug therapy to control their disease. An 80% chance of unfavorable response after placebo treatment was expected according to the experience of the Diabetic Angiopathy Service.


Patients were administered flower essences or a placebo to determine the effects on physical symptoms for diabetes

The diagnostic criteria were: subjects suffering from type 2 DM without clinical manifestation of ambulatory problems and no history of foot amputation.

Laboratory tests that were tested are listed below:

Determination of fasting blood glucose levels was performed by the enzymatic method of glucose oxidase, through the Rapi Gluco Diagnostic Test (22)

Determination of total cholesterol and triglycerides were determined by a Hitachi 705 automatic analyzer.

Inclusion criteria were as follows: In addition to the diagnostic criteria, we selected subjects 60 to 80 years old of either sex, with pathological levels of glucose (> 6.5 mmol / L), total cholesterol (> 6 , 5 mmol / L) and triglycerides (> 1.7 mmol / L), independent of hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemia and hypotriglyceridemiatreatment and who gave their consent to participate in the study.

Exclusion criteria were: presence of lesions in some of the lower limbs or infections, pregnancy, lactation, psychiatric disorders, dementia, presence of tumors.

Strategy of the Study

Patients who met the inclusion criteria underwent a personality test to identify the essences that everyone should use.

Treatment A

This treatment utilized flower essence therapy and drug therapy for metabolic control of diabetes and lipid levels or diet.

Treatment with oral hypoglycemic agents was given for individual requirements prescribed by their doctor that ranged from 3 to 6 tablets of glyburide daily. The same treatment was performed with the hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemia groups of people.

Methods of preparation of flower essences

The personalized flower formula included up to 6 different essences in a 30 mL amber glass bottle, with 2 drops each of the individual patient diagnosed essences in a15% alcohol solution. The kit of essences was obtained from Flower Essence Services, Nevada City, California 95959 USA.

Treatment B

Included placebo plus drug therapy for metabolic control of diabetes and lipid levels.

Preparation of placebo

30 mL bottles containing a solution of 15% alcohol.

The administration of treatments A and B was 4 sublingual drops, 4 times a day, a half hour before eating. The regimens were administered for 8 weeks. The laboratory study was conducted before and after both treatments were applied.

Effectiveness criterion

Treatment response was considered positive when pathological levels of blood glucose and lipid reached a normal value and was considered unfavorable when the levels of glucose and lipids remained pathological.

Tolerance and safety of flower essence therapy

The presence of adverse effects was checked only during the treatment period and were classified into groups according to OMS(23):

No reaction
Light: No treatment required
Moderate: Requires treatment
Severe: Requires hospitalization
Very severe: life-threatening.


The study was approved by the Ethics Committee and the Scientific Council of INACV. The use of a placebo was considered necessary to confirm the accuracy of scientific results without impacting the quality of life of the patients studied. The target and the characteristics of the study were explained to the patients, who subsequently gave their consent to participate in the study.

Quality control study

Laboratory tests were carried out following the regulations of Cuban standards for good clinical laboratory practice (24), verified by the head of the laboratory.


A database in Excel 2007 was established with the results of each test. Statistical processing was performed using Excel 2007 and Statistical, which was set to a significance level of p <0.05 for 95% confidence. It was used to determine the mean and standard deviation, and a comparison study between treatment groups, and between before and after, within each group using the Student t test and chi square (X2), and an analysis of variance.


A higher percentage of favorable response was found in the treatment group which utilized flower essences compared to the treatment group which received a placebo

The evaluation of quality control showed good adhesion to the research project.

Statistical tests were performed to check the normality and homogeneity of the treated groups, which showed that both study groups were homogeneous and comparable in demographic characteristics (Table 1), and laboratory procedures ( Table 2), performed before inclusion of the patient in the study.

Table 1: Demographic characteristics of the patients studied.


N Total

Treatment A

Treatment B







Statistical analysis: Comparison between treatment groups A (flower essence) and B (placebo) performed by Chi-square (X2) and T Student b

Table 2: Laboratory variables before treatment.


Treatments (N)


A (X±DS)

B (X±DS)






Total cholesterol








Statistical analysis: Comparison of means (X) by a Student T of each variable studied between treatments A (flower essence) and B (placebo), p> 0.05 not significant

Tables 1 and 2 show no significant differences regarding demographic and laboratory variables studied before treatment.

Table 3 shows the patients with pathological values of the variables at baseline.

Table 3: Distribution of patients according to treatment and variables.



Treatment A

Treatment B





Total cholesterol








Table 4: Effect of treatment A and B on the favorable response of the studied variables.


Favorable Response  



Treatment A 
     N        (%)

Treatment B 
      N       (%)



40      83,3%

21     43,7%


Total cholesterol

10      76,9%

 3      27,3%



59      85,5%

18      27,3%


Statistical analysis: Chi square (X2) p <0.05 significant difference
Legend: N = number of patients

The results in Table 4 show statistically significant differences found in the treatment groups A and B with respect to the variables studied. It can be observed a higher percentage of favorable response in the treatment group compared to the treatment group B.

Significant differences were also found in the treatment group A, when comparing the initial and final results of blood glucose and lipid variables, expressed in terms of the statistic T and the significance level p, interpreted as a favorable response within the group A treated. However, in the B treatment group showed no differences (Table 5).

Table 5: Statistical Process variables within treatments A and B.


Treatment A (start/end)
    Value F       (p)

Treatment B (start/end)
     Value F          (p)


6,24        0,000478

1,402            0,238ns

Total cholesterol

4,59        0,000624*

1,44        0,173758ns


9,93        0,0001*

1,34         0,923678ns

Statistical analysis: Comparison between groups and within groups by the F statistic analysis of variance (ANOVA) Legend: p = level of significance

Patients receiving treatment A showed greater percent reduction in blood glucose levels (83.3%), total cholesterol (76.9%) and triglycerides (85.5%) compared with patients who received treatment B (43.7%, 27.3%. 27.3% respectively). These results can be viewed in Table 6.

Table 6: Percentage of each variable reduction in treatments A and B.


Treatment A
% reduction

Treatment B
% reduction






Total cholesterol








Statistical analysis: Chi square test (X2) p <0.05 significant difference, p <0.001 highly significant difference

The results show that personalized Bach flower therapy combined with conventional drug treatment for metabolic control of the disease and treatment for hypotriglyceridemiahypocholesterolemia in type 2 diabetic patients, achieved a significant reduction in blood lipids without adversely affecting the treatment of diabetes. But on the contrary, during the 8 weeks of treatment there was also a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose. Most favorable responses were found in the group receiving flower essence therapy with a higher percentage reduction of blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides.


This study of subjects with type 2 diabetes showed that treatment with personalized Bach flower therapy applied with the conventional treatment for metabolic control of diabetes and lipid levels for 8 weeks was associated with decreases significant in both fasting blood glucose, and total cholesterol and triglycerides. Furthermore, this therapy was well tolerated and safe, as evidenced by the reference to no adverse effects.

The literature reports a study of patients with diabetes both type 1 and type 2 for 3 months under a personalized treatment with Bach flower therapy to assess its effectiveness in the evolution of the cardinal symptoms. The result was a decrease in the use of oral hypoglycemic agents and insulin, and a significant improvement in blood sugar levels, concluding that this therapy promotes the health of diabetic patients by balancing their emotional energy. However there are no previous reports of the effect of this therapy personalized Bach type 2 diabetic patients on lipid levels.

This study provides evidence of the benefits of using the therapy and suggests that the percent reduction of total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, by administering personalized Bach flower therapy combined with conventional drug treatment, can be of great importance in positively influencing the atherogenic risk suffering of most type 2 diabetics, possibly due to the harmonization of the emotional-energy state.


The results suggest that personalized Bach flower therapy may be used in combination with conventional drug therapies and proved effective, safe and convenient for patients.


1. La Torre MA. Integrative perspective. Integrating a Bach flower remedies therapeutic practice Perspect Psychiatric Care 2006, 42 (2): 140-3.

2. Leary B. The early work of Dr. Edward Bach. Br Homeopath J. 1999, 88:28-30
M. Valdes, M. Armas Using transpersonal Star of Bethlehem, Vine and Oak in the treatment of mild hypertension [cited September 6, 2008] Available at: 20hipertensión% 20arterial% 20ligera.pdf.

3. Waldo H. Belloso, Redal MA. Pharmacogenomics and the path to personalized medicine. Medicine 2010, 70 (3): 265-74.

4. Bates S. Progress towards personalized medicine. Drug Discov Today 2010; 15:115-20.

5. E. Pedroza, Alba L., Rodriguez D. Flower therapy in mood alterations in patients explaining anxiety response. [Cited September 6, 2008] Available at: 20ansiedad.pdf.

6. S. Rivas, N. Dueñas Treatment of osteoarthritis with Bach flower essences. [Cited September 6, 2008] Available at:

7. M. Reyes Flower Therapy and smoking. [Cited September 6, 2008] Available at: topic.% 20tabaquismo.pdf.

8. American Diabetes Association Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2012, 35 (suppl 1): S 64-7.

9. Ll-Ledón. Psychosocial Impact of Diabetes Mellitus, experience, meaning and response to disease. Cubana Endocrinol Rev. 2012, 23 (1): 176-97.

10. Shaw J, Sicree R, Zimmet P. Global Estimates of the Prevalence of diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010; 87 (1) :4-14.

11. RE-Valdés, Bencosme RN. Macrovascular complications and their relationship with clinical and biochemical variables in type 2 diabetics. Rev. Cubana Endocrinol 2010; 21 (3): 256-68.

12. Karasik A. Glycaemic Control is essential for cardiovascular risk reduction Effective type 2 diabetes across the continuum. Ann Med 2005; 37 (4): 250-8.

13. I consenso cubano de dislipoproteinemias: guidelines for the prevention, detection, diagnosis and treatment. Rev. Cubana Endocrinol. 2006, 17 (4) :1-31.

14. CB-Giorda, Avogaro A, Maggini M, Lombardo F, Mannucci E, Turco S, SS Alegiani, Raschetti R, Velussi M, Ferrannini E, for the DAI Study Group. Recurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with Type 2 diabetes: epidemiology and risk factors. Diabetes Care [serial online] 2008 [cited 5 September 2008] Available from:

15. Carmena R. Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, and vascular risk: rationale and evidence for correcting the lipid imbalance. Am Heart J. 2005, 150: 859-70.

16. S-Socarrás M., Blanco A J., Vázquez V A., González Licea HD and P M. Risk factors for atherosclerotic disease in diabetes mellitus type 2 Rev. Cubana Med [serial online] 2003 [cited 4 May 2007], 42 (2): Available at: / 1/articulos.php? id_revista = 68 & id_ejemplar = 15.

17. Vincent SB, TG Zerquera, Peraza AD, AE Castañeda, Irizar HJ, Bravo VT. Life quality of Diabetic patients Medisur 2008; 6:20-6.

18. EJ Boyko, Ahroni JH, Smith DG, Davignon D. Increased Mortality Associated with diabetic foot ulcer. Diabetic Medicine 1996; 13:967-72.

19. Monteiro-Soares M, Vaz Carneiro A, Sampaio S, M. Dinis-Ribeiro Validation and comparison of stratification systems currently available for patients with Diabetes risk of foot ulcer by development. Eur J Endocrinol 2012; 167:401-7.

20. Halevy J, Harefuah. Complementary and alternative medicine - time for Research and Regulation 2011 Aug, 150 (8) :655-6, 688.

21. G-Garden M, Atman G D. Statistics with confidence BMJ London: WCLH 9JR, 1994.

22. Trinder P. Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase With An alternative oxygen acceptor. Ann Clin Biochem. 1969, 6:24-5.

23. World Health Organization Alliance for Patient Safety 2005 forward programmed Cited: 5 Jan 2005. Available at: / patientsafety.

24. Ministry of Public Health of Cuba. Regulation 3/95 Good Laboratory Practice. Havana, CEDMED, 1995.

25. Lima SA. Flower Therapy in Diabetes Mellitus. [Cited September 6, 2008] Available at: 20diabetes% 20mellitus.pdf.

Credentials of authors:

1) MSc. Atherosclerosis Research, Research Assistant, Assistant Professor, INACV
2) DSc. Professor and Researcher Med. INACV
3) MSc. In Clinical Biochemistry, Researcher, Research Assistant, INACV
4) MSc. In bioethics, Research Assistant and Assistant Professor, INACV
5) Lic. health technology, Research Assistant and Assistant Professor
6) INACV MSc. In microbiology Professor Faculty of Medical Sciences Diez de Octubre
7) Lic. in health technology, Professor, Methodology, Dr. S Allende FCM


[ About FES | Online Repertory |Class Offerings | Research & Case Studies | Interviews and Articles]
[ What's New | Publications | Membership | Find a Practitioner | Members' Pages | Home ]


P.O. Box 459, Nevada City, CA  95959
800-736-9222 (US & Canada)
tel: 530-265-9163    fax: 530-265-0584


Copyright © by the Flower Essence Society.
All rights reserved.